Research Studies and Links
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Research on Health Effects
Environmental Science & Technology

Haloacetonitriles vs. Regulated Haloacetic Acids: Are Nitrogen-Containing DBPs More Toxic?
Mark G. Muellner, Elizabeth D. Wagner, Kristin McCalla, Susan D. Richardson, Yin-Tak Woo, Michael J. Plewa
2007;41(2) pp 645-651;(Article) DOI:10.1021/es0617441

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

Monochloramine (CASRN 10599-90-3) (This publication notes that inadequate cancer studies have been done. It also refers to inhalant studies that are "Not Available".)

For excerpts from this document, click here.

New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet, Chloramine

World Health Organization

Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Chapter 16, Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products.

Occup. Environ. Med.

A Bernard, S Carbonnelle, O Michel, S Higuet, C de Burbure, J-P Buchet, C Hermans, X Dumont, and I Doyle,
Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren: unexpected associations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools, Jun 2003; 60: 385 - 394.

Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health

Chemicals in Drinking Water: Chloramines

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


HETA #2002-0257-2916; Bil-Mar Foods, Inc.; Storm Lake, Iowa; October, 2003

U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety & Health Administration


Safety and Health Topics: Nitrogen Trichloride

Journal of Gastroenterology

Enhancement by monochloramine of the development of gastric cancers in rats: A possible mechanism of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. 1997, 32:435-44.
Hiroyasu Iishi, Masaharu Tatsuta, Miyako Baba, Tomiko Mikuni, Reiko Yamamoto, Kazushige Iseki, Hiroyuki Yano, Hiroyuki Uehara, and Akihiko Nakaizumi

Life Sciences

Monochloramine induces acute and protracted colitis in the rat: Response to pharmacological treatment. Volume 76, Issue 25, 6 May 2005, Pages 2965-2980.
Isabel Ballestera, Raquel Gonzáleza, Ana Nietob, Antonio Zarzueloa and Fermín Sánchez de Medina

Health Canada

Chloramines, Guideline. October 1995 (edited May 1996)

American Water Works Association (Awwa) Research Foundation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products and Pregnancy Outcome [Project #2579], 2005
Principal Investigators: David A. Savitz, Philip C. Singer, Katherine E. Hartmann, Amy J. Herring, Howard S. Weinberg, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill

American Chemistry Council, Chlorine Chemistry Division

Drinking Water Chlorination: A Review of Disinfection Practices and Issues

A New Perspective on Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts

The Precautionary Principle Under Fire: Detractors Continue to Challenge Chlorination as a Safe Water Solution for Developing Nations

Pan American Health Organization Letter to U.S. EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Ecosystems Research Division


What is in Our Drinking Water? Identification of New Chemical Disinfection By-products (DBPs)

Environmental Science & Technology, Science News

Chloramine complications, August 18, 2004

The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for chloramine

Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology

The Health Effects of Chloramines in Public Water Supplies: A Literature Review. Gary S. Moore and Edward J. Calabrese. Division of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. 1980. 4:257-263.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Type of Disinfectant in Drinking Water and Patterns of Mortality in Massachusetts. Sally Zierler, Robert A. Danley, and Lisa Feingold. Volume 69, pp. 275-279, 1986.

Journal of Biological Chemistry, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Monochloramine Inhibits Phorbol Ester-inducible Neutrophil Respiratory Burst Activation and T Cell Interleukin-2 Receptor Expression by Inhibiting Inducible Protein Kinase C Activity. Tetsuya Ogino, Hirotsugu Kobuchi, Chandan K. Sen, Sashwati Roy, Lester Packer and John J. Maguire. Volume 272, Number 42, Issue of October 17, 1997, pp. 26247-26252.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems. Environmental Health Perspectives. M.L. Miranda, M. Overstreet, D. Kim, A. Hull, C. Paul, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC. November 2006.

Chemical & Engineering News

EPA Limits Implicated In Eye Infections. June 4, 2007.
Research on Environmental Effects
Environment Canada

Existing Substances Evaluation
Assessment Report - Inorganic Chloramine

Santa Clara County Vector Control District, Department of Environmental Health

Chloramines and Mosquito Fish
Research on Plumbing and Related Health Effects
Maui Coalition for Safe Water

Showerheads and Whole House Filters

Maui Department of Water Supply

Maui's Water Treatment Facilities (WTF)
See the descriptions of the five water treatment facilities serving Maui. The Olinda Water Treatment Facility serves the Upper Kula region, where lead problems have occurred. Olinda uses chloramines.

Becki Marshall and Marc Edwards, Virginia Tech, Evaluation of Lead Corrosion Control Strategies in Maui Water, August 25, 2004

U.S. House of Representatives

Written Testimony by Marc Edwards, Professor of Civil Engineering, on lead in the drinking water of the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC WASA), to the U.S. House of Representatives, Chairman Tom Davis and the Committee on Government Reform, March 5, 2004
Research on Water Disinfectants
Chemical Online

Monochloramine Treatment Not As Effective In Protecting Drinking Water, March 2, 2007

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual, EPA 815-R-99-014, April 1999

Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual, EPA 815-R-99-014, April 1999, Chapter 6, Chloramines
Information on Drinking Water
Denver Water

Denver Water's 2002 Treated Water Quality Summary Report

NSF International

Drinking Water

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Ground Water & Drinking Water, Current Drinking Water Standards

Lead and Copper Rule

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)